Back to articles list
- 1 minutes read

Update Anomalies

Let’s take a look at the following table:

Customer Purchase date Product name Amount Price Total price
Joe Smith 2014-02-14 Yoga mat 1 80 80
Jane Bauer 2014-02-16 Yoga block 2 30 60
Joe Smith 2014-02-14 Yoga block 2 30 60
Joe Smith 2014-02-14 Yoga strap 1 10 10
Thomas Apple 2014-02-18 Dumbbells 2kg 2 30 60
Jane Bauer 2014-02-16 Yoga mat 1 80 80

What’s wrong with this table? It’s difficult to modify data in it. Upon modification, several anomalies can occur:

Insert anomalies

It’s impossible to insert a product into the table if the product hasn’t been bought by a customer yet. Similarly, it’s impossible to insert a customer who hasn’t made a purchase yet.

Update anomalies

It’s difficult to update data in the table. If you want to change the name of the product, you have to update all rows where the product is bought. You cannot change the price of the product for all future purchases.

Delete anomalies

If you delete the Thomas Apple purchase (say, because the order was cancelled), you will also delete the product “Dumbbells 2kg.”

How do you deal with tables like this? You have to normalize them! A detailed post on data normalization will appear soon. Stay tuned!

go to top

Our website uses cookies. By using this website, you agree to their use in accordance with the browser settings. You can modify your browser settings on your own. For more information see our Privacy Policy.